Deleuze and Guattari 1986

From Whiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari. Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.

Content and Expression

"Only the principle of multiple entrances prevents the introduction fo the enemy, the Signifier and those attempts to interpret a work tha tis actually only open to experimentation." (3)

proliferation of photos and portraits

form of content (bent head) vs. form of expression (portrait-photo) form of content -- bentness of the head/content form of expression -- any form by which something is expressed; book, photography, etc.

not a hermeneutic interpretion, not a categorizatnio of images or psychoanalytical interpretation or structural analysis

in answer to the bent head, the head that straightens (4) -- "intrusion of sound often occurs in Kafka in connection with the movement to raise or straighten the head" (4)

"Music always seems caught up in an indivisible becoming-child or becoming-animal, a sonorous block that opposes the visual memory." (5)

straightened head as a form of content, musical sound as a form of expression

bent head/portrait photo == blocked, oppressed, neutralized desiry, memory, teritoriality

straightened head/musical sound == desire that moves fwd, opens to new connections, deterritorialization

not the composed note that interests Kafka, but "a pure sonorous material" (5); "What interests Kafka is a pure and intense sonorous material tha tis always connected to its own abolition -- a deterritorialized musical sound, a cry that escapes signification, composition, song, words -- a sonority that ruptures in order to break away fro ma chain that is still monotone and always nonsignifying" (6); "Sound doesn't show up here as a form of expression, but rather as an unformed material of expression, that will act on the other terms" (6)

"We won't try to find archetypes that would represent Kafka's imaginary, his dynamic, or his bestiary (the archetype works by assimilation, homogenization, and thematics, wehreas our method works only where a rupturing and hetereogenous line appears). morover, we aren't looking ofr any so-called free associations (we are all well aware of the sad fate of these associations that always bring us back to childhood memories or, even worse, to the phantasm, not because they fail to work but because such a fate is part of their actual underlying principle). We aren't even trying to interpret, to say that this means that. And we are looking least of all for a structure with formal oppositions and a fully constructed Signifier; one can always come up with binary oppositions like 'bent head-straightened head' or 'portrait0sonority' and bi-univocal relations like 'bent head-portrait' or 'straightened head-sonority.' But that's stupid as long as one doesn't see where the system is coming from and going to, how it becomes, and what element is oging to play the role of heterogeneity, a saturating body that makes the whole assembly flow away and that breaks the symbolic structure ,no less than it breaks hermeneutic interpretation, the ordinary association of ideas, and the imaginary archetype." (7)

--> "We believe only in a Kafka politics that is neither imaginary nor symbolic. We believe only in one or more Kafka machines that are neither structure nor phantasm. We believe only in a Kafka experimentation that is without interpretation or significance and rests only on tests of experience" (7):


there is no writer, only a "mahine-man, and an experimental man" (7) -->"To enter or leave the machine, to be in the machine, to walk around it, to approach it -- these are all still components of the machine itself: these are states of desire, free of all interpretation." (7) --> not an issue of being free, but of FINDING A WAY OUT, OR A WAY IN

"Desire is not form, but a procedure, a process." (8)

An Exaggerated Oedipus

"The question fothe father isn't how to become free in relation to him (an Oedipal question) but how to find a path there where he didn't find any." (10)

"it's not Oedipus that produces neurosis; it is neurosis -- that is, a desire tha tis alraeyd submissive and searching to communicate its own submission -- that produces Oedipus." (10)

possibilities of escape from family triangle: BECOMING-ANIMAL, BECOMING-BEETLE (12); "To become animal is to participate in movement, to stake out the path of escape in all its positivity, to cross a threshold, to reach a continuum of intensities that are valuable only in themselves, to find a world of pure intensities where all forms come undone, as do all significations, signifiers, and signifieds, to the benefit of an unformed matter of deterritorialized flux, or nonsignifying signs. Kafka's animals never refer to a mythology or to archetypes but correspond solely to new levels, zones of liberated intensities where contents free themselves from their forms as wella s from their expressions, from the signifier that formalized them." (13)

also, the becoming-man of the ape in "Report to the Academy" --> "Flight is challenged when it is useless movement in space, a movement of false liberty; but in contrast, flight is affired when it is a stationary flight, a flight of intensity." (13) --> linking up with abstract machiens

"The act of is a capturing, a possession, a plus-value, but never a reproduction or an imitation." (13)

"Thus, we have two effects of the development or comic enlargement of Oedipus: the discovery a contrario of other triangles that operate beneath and, indeed, in the familial triangle, and the a posteriori outlining of paths of escape of the orphaned becoming-animal." (14)

What is a Minor Literature?

doesn't come from a minor language, but a minor people using a major language


1. "in it langauge is affected with a high coefficient of deterrirotiralization" (16) [deterritorialization of language]

"Prague German is a deterritorialized language, appropriate for strange and minor uses. (This can be compared in another context to what blacks in America today are able to do with the English language.)" (17)

2. "everything in them is political" (17) [the connection fo the individual to a political immediacy]

in major lits, social milieu is environment, background; in minor lit, everything connects the individual to politics

3. "in it everything takes on a collective value" (17) [the collective assemblage of enunciation]

not a "literature of masters" (17); "what each author says individually already constitutes a common action, and what he or she says or does is necessarily political, even if others aren't in agreement" (17); "but above all else, bc collective or national consciousness is 'often inactive in external life and always in the process of break-down,' literature finds itself positively charged with the role and function of collective, and even revolutionary, enunciation." (17); "the literary machine thus becomes the relay for a revolutionary machine-to-come, not at all for ideological reaons but bc the ltierary machine alone is determined to fill the conditions of a collective enunciation that is lacking elsewhere in this milieu: literature is the people's concern" (18); "there isn't a subjective; there are only colelctive assemblages of enunciation" (18)

    • "We might as well say that minor no longer designates specific literatures but the revolutionary conditions for every literature within the heart of what is called great (or established) literature." (18)

have to define major literature through minor literature, marginal literature "only in this way can literature really become a collective machine of expression" (18)

one can [1] "attempt at symbolic reterritorialization, based in archetypes" etc (19) or [2] "go always farther in the direction of deterritorialization, to the point of sobriety" (19)

re: [2]: "Sicne the language is arid, make it vibrate with a new intensity. Oppose a purely intesive usage of language to all symbolic or even significant or simply signifying usages of it. Arrive at a perfect and unformed expression, a materially intense expression." (19)

re: [1]: "the former never stops operating by exhilaration and overdetemination and brings about all sorts of worldwide reterritorialization." re: [2]: "the other proceeds by dryness and sobriety, a willed poverty, pushing deterritorialization to such an extreme that nothing remains but intensities." (19)

"How to become a nomad and an immigrant and a gypsy in relation to one's own language? Kafka answers: steal the baby from its crib, walk the tightrope." (19)

EATING VS. SPEAKING mouth and teeth "find their primitive territoriality in food. In giving themselves over to the articulation of sounds, the mouth, tonguel ,and teeth deterritorialize." (19) eating and writing, eating and speaking "Undoubtedly, one can write while eating more easily than one can speak while eating, but writing goes further in transforming words into things capable of competing with food. Disjunction bw content and expression. To expeak, and above all to write, is to fast." (20)

    • (c.f. Fourth Paradox in The Logic of Sense)

"Ordinarily, in fact, language compensates for its deterritorialization by a reterritorialization in sense. Ceasing to be the organ of one of the senses, it becomes an instrument of Sense" (20)

"KSince articulated sound was a deterritorialized noise but one that will be reterritorialized in sense, it is now sound itself that will be deterritorialized irrevocable, absolutly." (21) "Everywhere, organized music is traversed by a line of abolition -- just as a language of sense is traversed by a line of escape -- in order to liberate a living and expressive material that speaks for itself and has no need of being put into a form. This language torn from sense, conquering sense, bringing about an active neutralization of sense, no longer finds its value in anything but an accenting of the word, an inflectino" (21)

thing "no longer forms anythign but a sequence of intensive states, a ladder or a circuit for intensities that one can make race around in one sense or another, from high to low, or from low to high" (21-2)

"Metamorphosis is the contrary of metaphor. There is no longer any proper sense or figurative sense, but only a distribution of stats that is part of the range of the word" (22)

no longer a question of what is what, but "a question of a becoming that includes the maximum of difference as a difference of intensity, the crossing of a barrier, a rising or a falling, a bending or an erecting, an accent on the word" (22) --"AN ASIGNIFYING INTENSIVE UTILIZATION OF LANGUAGE" (22) -- no longer a SUBJECT of the statement/enunciation; "rather, there is a circuit of states that forms a mutual becoming, in the heart of a necessarily multiple or collective assemblage." (22)

INTENSIVES in language

"Language stops being representative in order to now move toward its extremities or its limits." (23)

Henri Gobard, tetralinguistic model: 1) vernacular/territorial language [here] 2) worldwide lang, lang of businesses [everywhere] 3) language of sense, culture; referential language; cultural reterritorialization [over there] 4) mythic language, horizon of cultures, religious reterritorialization [beyond] (23)

each language has a function for different materialis;

linguistics as science of language; apoliticized; ("even chomsky compensated for his scientific apoliticism only by his courageous struggle against the war in vietnam.") (24)

Kafka and use of Prague German, rel to Yiddish; deterritorializes Prage German "to several degrees, he will always take it farther, to a greater degree of intensity, but in the direction of a new sobriety, a new and unexpected modification, a pitiless rectification, a straightening of the head. Schizo politeness, a drunkenness caused by water. He will make the German langyuage take flight on a line of escape." (26)

"To bring language slowly and progressively to the desert. To use syntax in order to cry, to give a syntax to the cry." (26)

"There is nothing that is major or revolutionary except the minor. To hate all languages of the masters." (26)

"How many styles or genres or lit movements, even very small ones, have only one single dream: to assume a major function in language, to offer themselves as sa sort of state language, an official language... Create the opposite dream: know how to create a becoming-minor." (27)

The Components of Expression

"we find ourselves not in front a structural correspondence bw two sorts of forms, forms of content and forms of expression, but rather in from of an EXPRESSION MACHINE capable of disorganizing its own forms, and of disorganizing its forms of contents, in order to liberate pure contents that mix with expressions in a single intense matter." (28)

MAJOR LIT: straight line from content to expression; "That which conceptualizes well expresses itself." (28) MINOR LIT: "begins by expressing itself and doesn't conceptualize until afterward" (28); "Expression must break forms, encourage ruptures and new sproutings."

components of Kafka's expression machine:

[1] -- the letters

Kafka's use of letters is "perverse," "diabolical" (29); "The letters are a rhizome, a network, a spider's web." (29); Kafka as a kind of Dracula, a vampire, letters that work like bats (29-30)

    • "Kafka dist two series of technical inventions: those that tend to restore natural communication by triumphing over distances and bringing ppl together (the train, the car, the airplane), and those that reprent the vampirish revenge of the phantom where there is reintroduced 'the ghostly element bw ppl' (the post, the telegraph, the telephone, wireless telegraphy)." (30);

letters maintain "duality of the two subjects" -- that of enunciation as the form of expression that writes the letter, and of the statement "tha tis the form of content that the letter is speaking about" (30); postman assumes the subject of enunciation's recounting; TECHNOLOGIES becoming SUBJECTS "the flux of letters replaces seeing, arriving." (31); desire of the letters : "it transfers movement onto the subject of the statement; it gives the subject of the statement an apparent movement, an unreal movement, that spares the subject of enunciation all need for a real movement." (31)

topography of obstacles

letters are "an integrative part of the writing machine or the expression machine. it is as such that we must think of theletters in general as belonging to the writing" (32)

guilt as surface moevement; "dracula cannot feel guilty, kafka cannot feel guilty" (32) "Guilt is the statement of a judgment that comes from outside and that works, preys, only on a weak soul." (32)

fear -- "the real panic is that the writing machine will turn against the mechanic" (33); guilt doesn't re-Oedipalize, but fatigue, lack of invention

c.f. letterwriting w/that of Proust (33-4)

[2] -- the stories

"essentially animalistic" (34); "the animal is the object par excellence of the story: to try to find a way out, to trace a line of escape" (34); letters collect blood, "start the whole machine working" (35) -- but must be transformed into a question of "creating" (35); "We would say that for kafka, the animal essence is the way out, the line of escape, even if it takes place in place, or in a cage. A LINE OF ESCAPE, AND NOT FREEDOM. A VITAL ESCAPE AND NOT AN ATTACK." (35)

characteristics of animalistic stories:

1) "no possibility of distinguishing those cases where the animal is treated as an animal and those wehre it is part of a metamorhposis; everything in the animal is a metamorphosis" (35)

2) "the metamorphosis is a sort of conj of two deterritorializations, tat which the human imposes on the animal by forcing it to flee or to serve the human, but also that which the animal proposes to the human by indicating ways-out or means of escape" (35)

3) "thus, what matters is not at all the relative slowness of the becoming-animal; bc no matter how slow it is, and even the more slow it is, it constitutes no less an ABSOLUTE DETERRITORIALIZATION o fthe man in opposition to the merely relative deterritorializations that the man causes to himself by shifting, by traveling" (35)

"the becoming-animal is an immobile voyage that stays in one place; it only lives and is comprehensible as an intensity (to transgress the thresholds of intensity)" (35) --> nothing metaphoric about becoming-animal "no symbolism, no allegory" (35); "it is a map of intensities. it is an ensemble of states, each distinct from the other, grafted onto the man insofar as he is searching for a way out. It is a creative line of escape that says nothing other than what it is." (36); unlike duality of letters, constitutes a single process, "a unique method that replaces subjectivity" (36); stories bump up against no-way-out; if complete, then closes in on itself

"In short, the animalist stories are a component of the machine of expression, but distinct from the letters, since they no longer operate within a superficial movement or within the distinction of two subjects. Grasping the real, writing themselves within the real itself, they are caught up in the tension bw two opposing poles or realities." (36) --> i.e. show a way out that the becmoing-animals are themselves incapable of following

[3] -- the novels

in novels, substitutes becoming-animals for "a more complex assemblage" (37)

Kafka fascinated by all things small; "If he doesn't seem to like children that is bc they are caught in an irreversible becoming-big; the animal kingdom, in contrast, involves smallness and imperceptibility." (37)

molecular multipclicy "tends itself to become integrated w/, or make room for, a machine, or rather a machinic assemblage, the parts of which are indep of each other, but which functions nonetheless" (37)

animals caught in bw: either beaten down, caught in impasse, & story ends; or they "open up and multiply, digging new ways out all over the place but giving way to molecular multiplicities and to machinic assemblages that are no longer animal and can only be given proper treatment in the novels" (37-8)

novels have few animals, no becoming-animals

what makes kafka turn story into novel, vice versa? 1) becoming-animals cannot become novels 2) needs "machinic indexes that go beyond the animal" to become 'seeds for a novel" 3) novels will be abandoned when an animal escpae is imagined 4) novel cannot be novel unles "machinic indexes organize themselves nit oa real assemblage that is self-sufficient" 5) text with machines must "plu[g] into a concrete sociopolitical assemblage (since a pure machine is only a blueprint that forms neither a story nor a novel)." (38)

"Each failure is a masterpiece, a branch of the rhizome." (39)

LETTERS --> DIABOLICAL PACT; STORIES --> BECOMING-ANIMAL; NOVELS --> MACHINIC ASSEMBLAGES (40) "bw these three elements, there is constant transversal communication, in one direction and another" (40)

cannot oppose life and writing in kafka (41); "A rhizome, a burrow, yes -- but not an ivory tower. A line of escape, yes -- but not a refuge." (41)

"Because expressno precedes content and draws it along (on the condition, of course, is nonsignifying): living and writing, art andlife, are opposed only from the point of view of a major literature." (41)

Kafka: 1) laughs, 2) is "a political author, prophet of the future world" (41)

"Writing for kafka, the primacy of writing, signifies only one thing: not a form of literature along, the enunciation forms a unity with desire, beyond laws, states, regimes. Yet the enunciation is always historical, political, and social. A micropolitics, a politics of desire that questions all situations." (41-2)

[comic is political, political is comic]

Immanence and Desire

in Kafka, law often presented as "pure and empty form without content" (43); "no one knows the law's interior" (43)

Kant --> "the law no longer depends on a preexistent Good that would give it a materiality; it is a pure form on which the good such as it is depends" (43);

Kafka not interested in transcendental law but "dissecting the mechanism of an entirely diff sort of machine" which aligns its gears thru this image of the law (43) --> The Trial as scientific investigation (44)

connection of the law with GUILT --> guilt as a prior that corresponds to transendence (44); law states through punishment that marks the body; "it is the statement, the enunciation, that constructs the law in the name of an immanent power of the one who enounces it"; "the writings precede the law, rather than being the necessary and derived expression of it" (45)

many people write about Kafka in terms of: 1) transdcendence of the law 2) interiority of guilt 3) subjectivity of enunciation; connected to writing about allegory, metaphor and symbolism inj Kafka (45)

    • "It is absolutely useless to look for a theme in a writer if one hasn't asked exactly what its importance is in the work -- that is HOW IT FUNCTISNO (and not what its' sense' is)." (45)

LAW, GUILT, INTERIORITY -- these are "superficial movements" that indicate "points of undoing, of dismantling, that must guide the experimentation to show the molecular movements and the machinic assemblages of which the superficial movement is a globa lresult" (45)

never any criticism in Kafka --> can't be; "this would be grotesque, since it would turn criticism intoa dimension of represntation. If representation is not external, it can be only internal from here on" (46)

Kafka didn't "flee the world"; "rather, it was the world and its rperesentation that he MADE TAKE FLIGHT and that he made follow these lines" (46-7) "Even more, in the novels, the dismantling of the assemblages makes the social representation take flight in a much more effective way than a critique would have done and brings about a deterritorializatino of the world that is itself political and that has nothing to do with an activity of intiimacy." (47)

"Writing has a double function: to translate everything into assemblages adn to dismantle the assemblages. The two are the same thing." (47)

1) MACHINIC INDEXES "signs of an assemblages that have not yet been established or dismantled"; no one knows how pieces go together eyt -- living beings, animals; operators of an assemblage who still hold some mystery -- NOT allegorial or symbolical; -- becoming-animal, animalistic stories

2) ABSTRACT MACHINES "abstract machines surge into existence by themselves, without indexes" (47); -- no longer function; -- dead

3) ASSEMBLAGES OF MACHINE [novels] "machinic indexes stop being animal; they group, give birth to series, start proliferating, taking over all sorts of human figures or parts of figures" (48) -- works through dismantling "that it brings about on the machine and on representation" (48) -- works not through territorial criticism "but in a decoding, in a deterritorialization"; more "intense" than any critique (48)

stories either are just machinic indexes, or "put into operation abstract machines that are alla ssembled, but dead, and never succeed in concretely plugging into things" (48)

"These characteristics impose not an interpration or a social representation of kafka but an experimentation, a socio-political investigation. Since the assemblage functiosn really in the real, the question becomes: how does it function?" (48-9)

in The Trial, justice <--> desire

everywhere in kafka "the law si examined in terms of its connection to the parties that the different commentators belong to. But politically, the important things are always taking place elsewhere, i nthe hallways of the congress, behind-the-scenes of the meeting, where ppl confrnot the real, immanent problems of desire and of power -- the real problem of justice" (50)

"If everything, everyone, is part of justice, if everyone is an auxiliary of justice, from the priest to the little girls, this is not bc of the transcendence of the law but bc of the immanence of desire." (50)

The Trial as an "interminable novel": "An unlimited field of immanence instead of an infinite transcendence. The transcendence of the law was an image, a photo of the highest places; but justice is more like a sound (the statement) that never stops taking flight. The transcendence of the law was an abstract machine, but the law exists only in the immanence of the machinic asemblage of justice." (51)

"Justice is the continuum of desire, with shifting limits that are always displaced." (51)

innocence; postponement, delay

Proliferation of Series

proliferations in The Trial; "work to unblock a situation that had closed elsewhere in an impasse" (53)

doubles, trios; familial triangles, bureaucratic triangles; "mutual contacts and interpenetrations, something remains blocked"

kafka proliferates "doubles until they become indefinite, kafka opens up a field of immanence that will function as a dismantling, an alnalysis, a prognostics of social forces and currents" (55); "everything is desire" (56) -- not desire for power, "it is power itself that is desire". Not a desire-lack, but desire as a plenitude, exercise, and function, even in the most subaltern fo workers" (56) -- NEITZSCHE "Being an assemblage, desire is precisely on eiwth the gears and the components of the machine, one with the power of the machine." (56)

"If I am not the typist, I am at least the paper that the keys strike. If I am no longer the machine's mechanic, I am least the living material with which it deals." (56)

repression -- flows from power-desire, "from this or that state of the machine"; "Repression depends on the machine, not the other way around. Thus, there isn't power as if it were an infintie transcendence in relation to the lsaves or the accused. Power is not pyramidal as the Law would have us believe; it is segmentary and linear, and it proceeds by means of contiguity, and not by height and farawayness (hence, the importance of the subalterns)." (56); each segment is power, each segment a piece of the machine, but the machine cannot be dismantled w/o each of its contiguous pieces forming a machine in turn, taking up more and more place." (56); bureaucracy as desire, determined by particular segments at particular moments

revolutions/anarchist movements -- bc they own the streets, think they own the world; in fact they are only producing a new segment (57-8)

Kafka doesn't "pretend to be revolutionary, whatever his socialist sympathies may be. He knows that all the lines link him to a literary machine of expression for which he is simultaneously the gears, the mechanic, the operator, and the victim." (58) --> pushing deterritorialization further; "expression must sweep up content; the same process must happen to form" (58); ACCELERATING THE SPEED OF SEGMENTALIZATION, adding to segmented series; "Since the collective and social machines bring about a massive deterritorialization of man, Kafka will take this process farther, to the point of an absolute molecular deterritorialization. Criticism is completely useless." (58) "This method of segmentary acceleration or proliferation connects the finite, the contiguous, the continuous, and the unlimited." (58) "Since one can't count on the official revolution to break the precipitated conjunction of the segments, one will have to count on a literary machine that will anticipate the precipitations, that will overcome diabolical powers before they become established." (59)

desire can 1) crystallize into certain forms of expresion; but also 2) "take flight on the whole line, carried away by a freed expression, carrying away deformed contents, ... finding a way out, precisely a way out, in the discovery that machines are only the concretions of historically determined desire and that desire doesn't cease to undo them, straightening its bend head" (59) -- these are the two states of law

becoming-animal cannot create/take these lines of escape\

two movements of desire: 1) capturing desire in great diabolical assemblages that deterritorailize man, only to reterritorialize him in offices, prisons, etc.; 2) make desire take flight, rub up against assemblages without settling down, deterr as escape (60)

The Connectors

young women in the Castle -- desire, justic, young woman, young girl (63-4); "The young woman resembles justice: both are without principles." (64); young woman allows means of escape, of taking flight

woman as "part sister, part maid, part whore" (64)

sisters --> "greatest desire of making the familial machine take flight" (65)

maids, lowly employees --> "already cuahgt in a bureaucratic machine, they have the greatest desire of making it take flight" (65) [dracula?]

whores --> at the intersection of all the machines

--> all three needed at the same time == schizo-incest (66)

1) freedom of movement

2) freedom of the statement

3) freedom of desire

[detour into Masoch and masochism -- 66-7]

schizo-incest: 67

women in Castle mark the beginning or end of a series

"it would be a great error to refer the points of connection to the aesthetic impressions that subsist in them. Everything Kafka dose works to an exactly opposit end, and thsi is the principle behind his antilyricism, his anti-aestheticism: 'Grasp the world', instead of extracting impressioned from it; work with objects, characters, events, in reality, land not in impressions. Kill metaphor." (70)

-- distinction bw the AESTHETIC and the ARTISTIC --

"The artist is nothing like an aesthete, and the artist machine, the machine of expression, has nothing to do with artistic impressions." (70)

aristic machine as bachelor machine "plugged all the more intoa social field with multiple connections. Machine definition, and not na aesthetic one. The bachelor is a state of desire muc hlarger and more intesne than incestuous desire and homosexual desire." (70)

bachelor has no family,l threat to social body, social field

"Production of intensive quantities in the social body, proliferation and precipitation of series, polyvalent and collective connections brought about by the bachelor agent -=- there is no other definition possible for a minor literature." (71)

Blocks, Series, Intensities

discontinuous blocks important in kafka (72)

two architectural states:

1) high-angle or low-angle; stairs; craning up, craning down; discontinuity of block-arches; astronimical model; distant and close

2) frontal view, corridor view, low ceiling; wide-angle and depth-of-field; unlimitedlessness of the immanent hallway; earthly or und3erground model; faraway and contiguous

two states have a co-existence; they "function in each other, and in the modern world" (75)

"a paranoiac avant-garde" (75)

2) infinite-limited0discontinuous-close and distant 2) unlimited-continued-finite-faraway and faraway

What is an Assemblage?

"an assemblage, the perfect object for the novel, has two sides: it is a collecdtive assemblage of enunciation; it is a machinic assemblage of desire" (81)

"the machine is desire -- but not bc desire is desire of the machine but bc desire never stops makin a machine in the machine and creates a new gear alongside the preceding gear, indef, even if the gears seem to be in opposition or seem to be functioning in a discordant fashion. That which makes a machine, to be precise, are connections, all the connections that operate the disassembly." (82)

"that the technical machine is only a piece in a social assemblage that it presupposes and that alone deserves to be called machinic introduces another point: the machinic assemblage of desire is also the collective assemblage of enunciation." (82) --> statement is ALWAYS APRT OF THE MACHINE

"two problems enthrall kafka: when can one say that a statement is new? -- for beter or for worse -- and when can one say that a new assemblage is coming into view? -- diabolical or innocent, or both at the same time." (83)

"literature as a watch that moves forward and literature as a concern of the people" (84)

"This primacy of the enunciation refers us once again to the conditions of minor literature: it is the expression taht precedes or advances -- it is expression that precedes contents, whether to prefigure the rigid forms into which contents will flow or to make them take flight along lines of escape or transformation. But this primacy doesn't imply any idealism." (85)

sometimes suppleness is worse than rigidity

abstract machine [colony] vs. concrete machinic assemblages [operate in an unlimited field of immanence"