Little Gidding

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Anselment, Raymond A. "'The Church Militant': George Herbert and the Metamorphoses of Christian History." Huntington Library Quarterly 41.4 (Aug 1978): 299-316.
Arthur, Liz. Embroidery 1600-1700 at the Burrell Collection. London: John Murray, 1995.
Atherton, Ian and Julie Sanders. The 1630s: Interdisciplinary Essays on Culture and Politics in the Caroline Era. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.
Barbour, Reid. Literature and Religious Culture in Seventeenth-Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Baron, Sabrina Alcorn, Eric N. Lindquist, and Eleanor F. Shevlin. Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies after Elizabeth Eisenstein. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007.
Blum, Dilys E. The Fine Art of Textiles: The Collections of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1997.
Brooks, Mary M. English Embroideries of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries in the collection of the Ashmolean Museum. London: Jonathan Horne Publications, 2004.
Bruce, Yvonne, ed. Images of Matter: Essays on British Literature of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Newark: University of Delaware, 2005.
Carlton, Charles. Archbishop William Laud. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987.
Charles, Amy. A Life of George Herbert. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977.
Clarke, Elizabeth. Theory and Theology in George Herbert's Poetry. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Cope, Esther S. Handmaid of the Holy Spirit: Dame Eleanor Davies, Never Soe Mad a Ladie. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.
Cressy, David. Dangerous Talk: Scandalous, Seditious, and Treasonable Speech in Pre-Modern England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Darlow, T.H. and H.F. Moule. Historical Catalogue of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society. London: Bible House, 1903.
Digby, George Wingfield. Elizabethan Embroidery. London: Faber and Faber, 1963.
Fella, Thomas. Commonplace. 1592-1598.
Feroli, Teresa. Political Speaking Justified: Women Prophets and the English Revolution. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2006.
Fleming, Juliet. Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England. London: Reaktion Books, 2001.
Frye, Susan. Pens and Needles: Women's Textualities in Early Modern England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.
Griffiths, Antony. The Print in Stuart Britain 1603-1689. London: British Museum Press, 1998.
Henderson, George. "Bible Illustration in the Age of Laud." Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 8.2 (1982): 173-216.
Hill, Christopher. The English Bible and the Seventeenth Century Revolution. New York: Penguin, 1983.
Hunter, Michael, ed. Printed Images in Early Modern Britain: Essays in Interpretation. Burlington: Ashgate, 2010.
James I, Meditation Upon the Lord's Prayer (1619)
Jones, Ann Rosalind. The Currency of Eros: Women's Love Lyric, 1540-1620. Bloomington: University of Illinois Press, 1990.
Jones, Ann Rosalind and Peter Stallybrass. Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Loades, David, ed. John Foxe and the English Reformation. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997.
Marotti, Arthur F. John Donne, Coterie Poet. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.
Maycock, A. L. Nicholas Ferrar of Little Gidding. London: SPCK, 1938.
Maycock, Alan. Chonicles of Little Gidding. London: SPCK, 1954.
Mayor, J.E.B. Nicholas Ferrar, Two Lives.
Morrall, Andrew and Melinda Watt, eds. English Embroidery from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1580-1700. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.
Perrin, Noel. Dr. Bowdler's Legacy: A History of Expurgated Books in England and America. New York: Atheneum, 1969.
Ransome, Joyce. The Web of Friendship: Nicholas Ferrar and Little Gidding. Cambridge: James Clark & Co., 2011.
Rich, Barnabe. Riche his Farewell to Militarie Profession.
Rowell, Geoffrey, ed. The English Religious Tradition and the Genius of Anglicanism. Oxford: IKON, 1992.
Shorthouse, Joseph Henry. John Inglesant. London: Macmillan, 1881.
Skipton, H. P. K. The Life and Times of Nicholas Ferrar. London: A. R. Mowbray & Co., Ltd., 1907.
Smuts, R. Malcolm. Court Culture and the Origins of a Royalist Tradition in Early Stuart England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.
Stewart, Stanley. George Herbert. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1986.
Swain, Margaret. Embroidered Stuart Pictures. Haverfordwest: Shire Publications, Ltd., 1990.
Targoff, Ramie. Common Prayer: The Language of Public Devotion in Early Modern England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Tyson, Gerald P. and Sylvia S. Wagonheim, eds. Print and Culture in the Renaissance: Essays on the Advent of Printing in Europe. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1986.
Wardle, Patricia. Guide to English Embroidery. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1970.
Watt, Diane. Secretaries of God: Women Prophets in Late Medieval & Early Modern England. Cambridge: D S Brewer, 1997.
Westerweel, Bart, ed. Anglo-Dutch Relations in the Field of the Emblem. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, 1997.l
White, Micheline, ed. English Women, Religion, and Textual Production, 1500-1625. Burlington: Ashgate, 2011.

Little Academy


"Quite possibly this solution was at the prompting of Lister's wife, appalled at the prospect of so many years of devoted labour by her husband coming to nought in the end through the prohibitive cost of setting so huge a work in type. Certainly it was she, together with at least one of their daughters (researchers interpret the evidence differently as to how many of those were involved), who took upon themselves the immense task of producing the nearly 1,000 engravings, from their own preliminary sketches, a task to which they must have sacrificed considerably more than their leisure hours during the seven years that the first and main instalment was in production. 'I doe not wonder your workw[omen] begin to be tired,' a concerned Edward Llwyd wrote to Lister from Oxford as the work was nearing completion in 1692, 'you have held them so long to it' -- though the image of Lister as an ever-hovering taskmaster that those words conjure up is probably misleading: the others more probably took part contentedly, of their own volition. though it has been far from unusual over the years for naturalists to enlist the services of their wives and children for searching and collecting (as Ray was doing in that very same period in connection with the Historia insectorum), instances of a family conveyor belt for producing illustrations must be very rare by comparison. In one respect, however, the Listers were to be outdone by the early 19c Baxters: many of the plates for British Phaenogamous Botany, a long-running part-work by their father, the curator of the University Botanic Garden at Oxford, were produced not only by his daughters but by a daughter-in-law as well." (Allen 2010 56-7) -- Lister's wife/daughter making prints also mentioned in Griffiths 1998, 27

Baert, Barbara and Kathryn M. Rudy, eds. Weaving, veiling, and dressing : textiles and their metaphors in the late Middle Ages. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007.

Nelson 1974 -- published his book by scrapbooking a bunch of writings and sending it to someone to photograph/print; weaving metaphors: "COMPUTERDOM IS AN IMMENSE INTERTWINGLED TAPESTRY", "Programming is the WEAVING OF PLANS OF EVENTS" (CL 40)

McLeod 1994 -- see Random Cloud essay

Smyth 2010 -- see 38; pins linked closely with texts/books (texts as fabrics); 40, almanacs invoking readers to cut page; Anne Clifford hanging up papers with sayings, 91; see also 93n132

Lewalski, Protestant poetics.

Kugler, Errant plagiary.

Commonplace books:

  • Moss, Printed commonplace books.
  • Havens, Commonplace books.
  • Crane, Framing authority.
  • Sherman, John Dee.
  • New Ways of Looking at Old Texts.
  • Lechner, Renaissance Concepts of the Commonplace.

Writing and Women, eds. Lawrence-Mathers, Hardman

cento: a poem made from patches, from the Latin word for a patchwork cloak; done by Empress Eudocia, see [1]

on Elizabeth I's Glass translation:

  • Marc Shell, Elizabeth's Glass
  • "Your Humble Handmaid: Elizabethan Gifts of Needlework," Renaissance Quarterly 50 (1997): 459-93.
  • "guilty Sisters: Marguerite de Navarre, Elixabeth of England, and the Miroir"

Ann Rosalind Jones and Peter Stallybrass, Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory.

Women, Writing, and the Reproduction of Culture in Tudor and Stuart Britain.

Hackett, Helen. Women and Romance Fiction in the English Renaissance.

Snook, Edith. Women, Reading, and the Cultural Politics of Early Modern England.

WOMEN ADVISING WOMEN: Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women, 1450-1837.


Coles, Religion, Reform, and Women's Writing in Early Modern England

"And for your behaviour to your Wife, the Scripture can best give you counsell therein" (see Lewalski 1993, 16), for quote from James I about husbands toward wives; note in particular the phrase "such a sweet harmonie")

Reading Communities from Salons to Cyberspace

[quilted banner|]

Sea of Silk

Timothy Ward, Word and supplement: Speech Acts, Biblical Texts, and the Sufficiency of Scripture

Cummings, The Literary Culture of the Reformation

John Locke, splintering of reading; see Dobranski 2005 30; Tyndale, sucking the pith out of scripture so everything pertains to oneself

Kintgen, "Reconstructing Elizabethan Reading"

Kerrigan, "The Editor as Reader"

"Elizabeth Middleton, John Bourchier, and the compilation of seventeenth-century religious manuscripts". Library (0024-2160), 2 (2), p. 131.

Roger Chartier, "Leisure and Sociability: Reading Aloud in Modern Europe", Urban Life in the Renaissance

Silent But for the Word: Tudor Women As Patrons, Translators, and Writers of Religious Works

see Marotti 1995, 26

Writing for Women: The Example of Woman as Reader in Elizabethan Romance

on the publication of Herbert's Temple, see Cambridge University Press 1584-1984, by M. H. Black, pp. 68-86; also Marotti 1995, 256n103

Eikon Basilike

English women, religion, and textual production, 1500-1625 By Micheline White

Women's Writing and the Circulation of Ideas: Manuscript Publication in England

Sidney Psalms

  • Donne, "Upon the translation of the Psalms by Sir PHilip Sidney, and the Countess of Pembroke his sister": "A brother and a sister, made by thee / The organ, where thou art the harmony."
  • Pembroke, "Even now that care": "Btu n he did warp, I weaved this web to end; / the stuff not ours, our work no curious thing" -- bestowing poems as a "livery robe" to Queen Elizabeth

Society and Culture in Early Modern France

Miles Smith, preface to KJV

Lancelot Andrewes, relationship to George Herbert

look up Esther Inglis, digital images of books at Folger site

Reading and scripture: see Dobranski 2005, Tribble 1993, Loades 1997 Chp. 3

John Ferrar's repeated description as "rich jewels" -- ornaments; see Fumerton 1991 and "Earliest Little Gidding Concordance" article, pg 321

Boccaccio, De mulieribus claris, modeled on Petrarch's Lives of Famous Men; Thomas Elyot, Defence of Good Women'

A Christal Glas for christian women,

Eadwine Psalter,

How much were the women involved in the planning of the Harmonies?

see Maycock 1954 20, 25 (Duke thanks women), 30 (Maycock claims later harmonies are based on earlier harmonies, as if to discredit female authorship), 79 (assumes Virginia Ferrar incapable of managing silkworm manufacture on the colony)

see Ransome 2011 69 -- John Ferrar describes them as "the handy-work of women"; George Herbert thanked the women

see bottom of Ransome 2011 165 -- change made to Harmonies "that only Ferrar himself could have presumed to make"

see Ransome 2011 173 -- who gets status as author? -- speculates on 174 that "the women of the household could have contributed little" to Nicholas the younger's style of harmonies, had he lived

for examples of men thinking women were not involved, see Cyril Davenport, Byways Among English Books, pg 16: "The first and finest arrangement of scraps illustrating a particular text is to be seen in the case of Nicholas Ferrar's 'Harmonies' of parts of the Bible made by him at Little Gidding in the seventeenth century." mentions that NF would cut out prints in a way that libraries would disapprove of; "Nicholas Ferrar did not hesitate a moment about such a point as this, but if he ever came across a print he fancied he cut it out unscrupulously and let the rest go." (17)

George Herbert

See Anselment 1978, note 4, for older articles on The Temple and its relationship to structure/space/architecture.

Translation Memoriae Matris Sacrum:

Anselment, Raymond A. "'The Church Militant': George Herbert and the Metamorphoses of Christian History." Huntington Library Quarterly 41.4 (Aug 1978): 299-316.
Charles, Amy. A Life of George Herbert. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977.
Clarke, Elizabeth. Theory and Theology in George Herbert's Poetry. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Rowell, Geoffrey, ed. The English Religious Tradition and the Genius of Anglicanism. Oxford: IKON, 1992.
Stewart, Stanley. George Herbert. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1986.


London, Lambeth Palace Library, MS 251 (John Ferrar's account of the making of the royal concordances)

King Charles I

"visit" in 1633

coronation progress to Edinburgh of 1633

Embroidery / Sewing

"A short and sweet Sonnet made by one of the Maids of Honour, upon the death of Queen Elizabeth, which se sewed upon a Sampler, in Red Silke" -- "to a new Tune, or to 'Philida flouts me'."

  • In The Crown Garland of Golden Roses (1612)

"A Gentlewoman yt married a yonge Gent who after forsooke whereuppon she tooke hir needle in which she was excelent and worked upon hir Sampler thus"

  • manuscript, circa 1603

Isabella Whitney

Wall, Wendy. "Isabella Whitney and the Female Legacy." ELH 58.1 (Spring 1991): 35-62.

A sweet Nosgay is "a more heterogeneous and complex material artifact" that advice manuals written by dying parents to children, or earlier complaint forms; is "an experimental foray into a more heterogeneous complaint form" (47)

"The Nosgay counters the anxieties of print publication by presenting a book that replicates private textual circulation. By including letters sent between family members and friends and by referring to the text's place in a gift/patronage cycle, Whitney sets up a textual exchange system within the work. ... Of a lower class but socially connected with aristocratic households, Whitney creates a textual artifact that imitates the practices of those in more elite coteries." (47)
"Her book relies upon an unconventional authorizing strategy: Whitney steps forth as a publishing author by presenting a set of texts seemingly dispersed and multiple in their sites of production, but that multiplicity is finally governed by the overarching genre of the individual complaint and the authority of the sick (but curative) writing subject." (47-8)

tropes of contagion

digital editing

Text Comparison and Digital Creativity: The Production of Presence and MEaning in Digital Text Scholarship, P47.T43

Scholarly Editing in the Computer Age, PN162.S45

other Harmonies

Jean Buisson, inspiration for King's Harmony:;view=1up;seq=5

"When and where Nicholas chose his model is unclear because in volumes made for family use there was no need to identify it. He did, however, do so in the great harmony created for King Charles in 1635. The basic harmonizing arrangement of the gospel texts, he there explained, was that of a Netherlander, Cornelius Jansen. To Jansen's plan he had added annotations taken from the work of a later follower of Jansen, Jean Buisson.1' Other possible but unacknowledged sources I shall consider later. Jansen had divided his harmony, Concordia Evangelica (1549), into 150 chapters.20 The appeal of that format to Nicholas probably lay in its having the same number of chapters as there were psalms. In his reading plan psalms and harmony chapters could be apportioned so that both books could be read through together in a thirty-day month and thus repeated twelve times in the course of the year. If these and other harmonies were available, why did the Ferrars have to create their own? Most of the continental harmonies, including Jansen and Buisson, were in Latin, with a few in French or German.22 While harmonies in these languages would have been accessible to Cambridge dons and students, they would hardly have served for general family use at Gidding. There were only two English harmonies extant in 1625-6 and they too were aimed rather at an academic than a family audience.2' The only 'popular' work of this sort was Robert Hill's chapter-by-chapter summary of Jansen's harmony published in 1596 and bound with Hill's more extensive summary of the whole bible.24 Hill, who at that time was a Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, but also lived with the family of Sir William Fitzwilliam in Essex, explicitly proclaimed the educational value of both harmonies and summaries of this sort. Hill's subsequent career as a preacher showed him as keen to educate his listeners as Nicholas was to instruct his family.25 Unlike Hill, however, Nicholas wanted for this purpose not a summary but the actual words of scripture. In 1625 therefore he could only have obtained such an English harmony by making it himself, cutting up an English bible and arranging its verses in Jansen's sequence." (Ransome 2005,
"Among Jansen's writings is the "Concordia evangelica." (Louvain, 1529), to which he later added the "Commentarius in Concordiam et totem historiam evangelicam" (Louvain, 1572), undoubtedly his best work. He published also: "Commentarius in Proverbia Salomonis" (Louvain, 1567), and "Commentarius in Ecclesiasticum" (Louvain, 1569), both of which were republished in one work at Antwerp in 1589; "Commentarius in omnes Psalmos Davidicos" (Louvain, 1569), with an introduction to each psalm, an excellent paraphrase of the text, and explanations of the difficult passages; "Paraphrases in ea Veteris Testamenti Cantica, quae per ferias singulas totius anni usus ecclesiasticus observat" (Louvain, 1569). After his death appeared "Annotationes in Librum Sapientiae" (Louvain, 1577)." --

Michael Drayton, Harmonie of the Church

John Whitney, digital harmonies in animations

Document Layout Analysis

Chapter 4


The Mysterious and the Foreign in Early Modern England

Visual Art and Poetry

Poets and the visual arts in Renaissance England (2012)

Murray Roston, Renaissance Perspectives in Literature and the Visual Arts (1987)

L. E. Semler, The English Mannerist Poets and the Visual Arts (1998)

Book and Painting: Shakespeare, Milton, and the Bible (1983) — cf’s donne to mannerist art

Louis Martz, From Renaissance to Baroque: Essays on Literature and Art-- see esp. Crashaw + Bernini essay

Emblem Books

Good bibliography of scholarly sources on emblem books:

Westerweel 1997

Bruce 2005

Huston Diehl, "Graven Images: Protestant Emblem Books in England," Renaissance Quarterly 39.1 (Spring 1986): 49-66.

  • earlier scholar assume emblem books are 1) medieval (vulgarization of medieval traditions) and 2) Catholic
  • doesn't explain why the emblem book originated with the Reformation and flourished during years of religious controversy, nor why Jesuits came to it so late
  • "the very nature of the form -- with its combination of pictures and words, classical and vernacular languages, enigmatic mottoes and didactic explanations, traditional iconography and original interpretations -- reflects the central conflicts of the 16th and 17th centuries. Rather than harkening back to earlier beliefs, these emblem books question and challenge the inherited ideas of the Latin Middle Ages." (51)
  • the "northern Protestant emblem tradition, not a southern Catholic one," is what is imported to England (54)
  • "It is my contention that English emblem writers, from Jan van der Noot and Geoffrey Whitney to John Bunyan, express, either directly or indirectly, Protestant attitudes toward word and image." (54)
  • "With the exception of the English Jesuit Henry Hawkins, all these English emblem writers express in their emblems a fundamentally Protestant view of the world and of the relation of human beings to the visible creation." (54)
  • Protestant emblem writers used images not for devotion but to spur memory, ars memoria

Engraving in England

A. M. Hind, Engraving in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century (3 vols., Cambridge, 1952-64)

S. Colvin, Early Engraving and Engravers in England (1905)

A. Globe, Peter Stent, London Printseller c. 1642-1665 (Vancouver, 1985)

Sharpe 2000

Antwerp and Printing

Picturing Religious Experience: George Herbert, Calvin, and the Scriptures By Daniel W. Doerksen

Print Culture and Peripheries in Early Modern Europe: Commerce and Print in the Early Reformation

The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe

The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, Volume 3

Reformation and the Culture of Persuasion


New Perspectives on the Life and Art of Richard Crashaw

Ryan Netzley, Reading, Desire, and the Eucharist in Early Modern Religious Poetry

Thomas Healy, Richard Crashaw

Susan Mintz, “The Crashavian Mother”

Maureen Sabine, “Crashaw and Abjection: Reading the Unthinkable in his Devotional Verse”

Richard Rambuss, "Sacred Subjects and the Aversive Metaphysical Conceit: Crashaw, Serrano, Ofili”

Ryan Netzley, "Oral Devotion: Eucharistic Theology and Richard Crashaw's Religious Lyrics”

see chapter in Smith 2009

Molly Murray, The Poetics of Conversion in Early Modern English Literature

essay in Literary Circles and Cultural Communities in Renaissance England

Structures of Feeling in Seventeenth-century Cultural Expression

An essay on the art of Richard Crashaw / by Robert M. Cooper.

Shell, Alison. Catholicism, Controversy, and the English Literary Imagination, 1558-1660. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Post-dissertation notes

John Whitney, animator, digital harmonies: